Original Article

Prevalence, Clinical Features and Comorbidities of Alcohol and Substance Use Disorders Among Patients Admitted to Psychiatry Outpatient Clinic

Habib ERENSOY,Demir BERKOL Tonguç,Hasan BALCIOĞLU Yasin,Mervan AYTAÇ Hasan
2020, 4(1), s:5-15

Objective: Comorbidity of substance use disorders and other psychiatric disorders is common. However, data on the prevalence of substance use disorders in general psychiatric outpatient population is rather scarce.

Method: In order to investigate the prevalence of substance use disorders among the patients who admitted to the general psychiatric outpatient unit and followed with any psychiatric diagnosis, 734 consecutive adult patients were included in this study. Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test–AD was administered to these patients. Substance screening form and SCID-I dependence module were administered to 47 patients (6.4%) who had a MAST-AD score above 4. Later, SCID-II and the rest of SCID-I were administered to 33 patients (4.5%) who met any diagnostic criteria on this module.

Results: From these 734 patients, 33 (4.5%) had alcohol or substance use disorder: Five patients (0.7%) had alcohol dependence, 26 patients (3.5%) had alcohol abuse and 3 patients  (0.4%) had multiple substance dependence. There were 9 patients (1.2%) with cannabis abuse, 4 patients (0.5%) with ecstasy abuse, 1 patient (0.1%) with heroin abuse, 1 patient with (0.1%) biperiden abuse and 9 patients (1.2%) with benzodiazepin abuse. From this 33 patients, 7 (1.0%) patients were diagnosed with borderline personality disorder, 2 (0.3%) with antisocial personality disorder, 1 patient (0.1%) with paranoid personality disorder, 1 patient (0.1%) with narcissistic personality disorder, 2 patients (0.3%) with avoidant personality disorder, 1 patient (0.1%) with schizoid personality disorder and 1 patient (0.1%) with dependent personality disorder. With SCID-I, we found 5 (0.7%) major depressive disorder, 3 (0.4%) bipolar I, 1  (0.1%) distimic disorder, 2 (0.3%) paranoid schizophrenia, 1 (0.1%) delusional disorder, 3 (0.4%) generalized anxiety disorder, 3 (0.4%) panic disorder, 1 (0.1%) panic disorder with agoraphobia, 1 (0.1%) anxiety disorder not otherwise specified, 1 (0.1%) social phobia and 1  (0.1%) post-traumatic stress disorder.

Conclusion: These results suggest that substance use disorders are not prevalent among general psychiatric outpatients. Substance use disorders should be carefully assessed in patients with diagnoses of mood disorders, anxiety disorders or personality disorders.

Review Article

e-Sport and Health

Mustafaoğlu Rüstem
2019, 3(1), s:7-13

e-Sports become a part of our modern sport as it has entered our agenda in recent years, its popularity has increased rapidly and its mass of followers consists of young generation has reached a huge budget. In this review, the definition of e-Sport, historical development process, place in the world and our country, the spiritual and physical positive and negative effects on the individuals has been mentioned. Finally, it was mentioned about ergonomic changes and practical exercise suggestions to prevent possible musculoskeletal problems in e-Sport players. Scientific studies about e-Sports in Turkey is limited compared to other countries. With this study, it is aimed to eliminate the lack of Turkish resources related to this field which is developing day by day, to share the findings with the related health professionals and to contribute to the literature.

Original Article


Haydar Hoşgör,Gündüz Hoşgör Derya
2019, 3(1), s:16-24

Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the effect of the fear of missing out on the nomophobia, and to determine whether differences between these variables and demographic features.

Method: In accordance with this purpose, the students who were studying at the Department of Health Management in 2017-2018 autumn semester at universities in Istanbul were included in this study and data of  273 respondent were evaluated. Personal information form and FoMO and Nomophobia scales were used for data collection. Descriptive statistics, t-test, correlation and regression analyses were used in the data analysis.

Results: According to the analysis outcomes, the levels of nomophobia and FoMO of the students are above average. The results of the study demonstrate that there is a significant relation at a moderate level and positive direct relationship between nomophobia and fear of missing out, as well as the fear of missing out explains 30% of nomophobia. Also, the results show that there are statistically significant differences between students’ levels of nomophobia and fear of missing out, and their demographic features. Moreover, these differences are stem from students who control his smartphone at least 33 times a day, carry a continuous charger, control his smartphone as soon as waking up, connect to the social media via the smartphone.

Conclusion: It has been concluded that for future healthcare manager candidates, the fear of missing out on social networks is a predictor of nomophobia, also known as the fear of being deprived of the smartphone.

Original Article

The Prevalence of Violence and Violent Characteristics in Alcohol and Drug Abusers Compared with Controls

Ayşegül Tosuner,Zehra Arıkan
2018, 2(2), s:39-46

Objective: To identify the prevalence of violence in alcohol and drug abusers and a control group; to determine the relationship between violent behavior and impulsivity, anger, aggression, traumatic childhood experiences and indicate whether prevalence of violence differs between periods of deprivation, soberness and while under the influence of alcohol/drugs.

Method: 49 alcohol abusers and 31 drug abusers aged 15-65 years were compared among themselves and also with 62 healthy controls; using a questionnaire including questions related with sociodemographic characteristics of violence, the Buss-Perry Aggression Scale, Barratt Impulsivity Scale, the State-Trait Anger Scale, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Hamilton Depression Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.

Results: The prevalence of psychological violence was 85%, physical violence 54%, sexual violence 6% and economic violence 10%. Significant differences were found in most of the variables among the groups, which were thought to be related to violent behavior.

Conclusion: In addition to medical treatment for addiction, psychotherapeutic interventions focusing on personality traits in areas such as anger control and impulsivity should be adopted. The fact that violence decreases in sober periods indicates that violence is rather a result of the nature of the substance.

Original Article

Predictors for Fear of Missing Out in the Social Networks Among University Students

Çağrı Yalçın Çınar,Elif Mutlu
2018, 2(2), s:47-53

Objective: Social networks have become indispensable of our lives with the spread of the internet. The increase of time spent on social networks led to appear a new consept of fear of missing out. The purpose of this research was to determine predictors for Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) among university students.

Method: The sample of the research was 400 Kırklareli university students who were determined by random sampling method. The data was collected using personal information form, Life Satisfaction Scale, BAPI Internet Form, FoMO Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Five Factor Personality Scale and Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. SPSS Statistical Software package was used in the analysis of the data.

Results: As a result of research, Fear of Missing Out was found to be higher among students who also find lessons boring and check social media hourly especially in during the course who have low self-esteemand in the first grade. Inaddition, it was determined that internet addiction,neurotic features, attention deficit and hyperactivity have positively associated with FoMO.

Conclusion:Internet addiction, impulsivity and neurotic features are determined as influential factors in the emergence of FoMO.

Review Article

Food Addiction

Kafes Ali Yasin,Ülker Selami,Sayar Gökben Hızlı
2018, 2(2), s:54-58

Food addiction has become a subject of increasing interest recently, particularly in societies where the prevalence of obesity is increasing. In individuals consuming excessive carbohydrates, it is suggested that the behavior of consuming these foods is transformed into a kind of addiction, and it is reported that the attitudes observed in these individuals can be common with the basic symptoms that are constantly observed in substance addiction. The suggested dysfunction of reward system which proposed to be related with food addiction tried to be supported by clinical and experimental studies. In this review, food addiction will be defined, and clinical overlaps, probable etiologic factors and treatment options will be discussed.

Review Article

Secondary Gambling Disorder

Gül Eryılmaz,Işıl Göğcegöz
2018, 2(2), s:59-61

Pathological gambling is a mental disorder characterized that might cause significant decrements in social, vocational and family life. In this report, addictive gambling behavior, which may be called secondary or iatrogenic, has been reviewed.

Case Report

Gambling Disorder Following Bariatric Surgery

Eryılmaz Gül,Noyan C. Onur
2018, 2(2), s:62-63

Pathological gambling is defined as persistent and repetitive gambling behaviors, characterized by the inability to control the gambling behavior of the individual, family or professional functionality. It is stated that the possibility of occurrence of alcohol and substance use disorders is increased after obesity operations, which have been frequently applied in recent years. Until now, gambling disorder, which is considered as impulse control disorder, is evaluated under the category of addiction behaviors with DSM-5. In this case report, the case of gambling disorder following bariatric surgery will be discussed.


Original Article

Evaluation of Memory Functions of Alcohol Dependent Patients

Nurmedov Serdar
2018, 2(1), s:5-10

Long-term alcohol use causes varying degrees of deficit in various cognitive functions including learning, memory, visuospatial functions and abstraction. Studies using dif­ferent techniques indicate that the neocortex, particularly the frontal lobe; limbic system and cerebellum are the bra­in regions most vulnerable to the toxic effects of alcohol.

The aim of this study is to assess the memory function in individuals with a history of alcohol dependency who meet the criteria for at least early partial remission and to compare it with healthy controls. The study also aims to investigate the association of memory function with duration of abstinence.

Twenty-four patients and 24 age, sex and education matched healthy controls were included in the study. Patients with Axis-I comorbidity, chronic neurological disease, dementia, chronic disease, Wernicke encephalopathy, Korsakoff syndrome and history of head trauma were excluded. The memory function of alcohol dependent individuals and healthy controls was assessed with Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) and Rey Auditory- Verbal Learning Test (AVLT).

The memory subscales that show significant difference between the dependent and control groups are immediate memory span, total scores of learning trials and learning false score in AVLT and forward digit span, backward digit span, visual reproduction and memory quotient in WMS. Statistically significant difference was found in the long term recall score and long term false recognition score between the early and sustained full remission subgroups.

As a result of this study, dependent subjects are found to show more deficit in attention and memory functions compared to healthy controls. These findings are consistent with the literature on this subject.

Original Article

Sociodemographic Examination of Patients Applying to Probation Policlinic in Erzurum Province

Fatma Eren,Nermin Gündüz,Hatice Turan,Erkal Erzincan
2018, 2(1), s:11-16

 Objective: In this first study on the patients who applied to the Probation Ward in the Eastern Anatolian Region of Erzurum province, it is aimed to compare the sociodemographic data of the patients with the substance use characteristics and other legal crimes.

Method: Between December 2015 and February 2016, 132 patients who applied for the first time to the Erzurum DS polyclinic were included in the study. The sociodemographic data form prepared by the researchers participating in the research was applied.

Results: All of the 132 cases involved in the study were men. While 49.2% of the patients had multiple substance use, cannabis was found to be the highest substance alone at 45.4% level. We found that smoking and alcohol use started earlier than substance use and that alcohol and cigarette use were high. Considering the impact of multiple substance use on the sociodemographic data, a significant difference was found between early substance use age, substance abuse existence in the past month, the first cigarette smoking age, self-harm behavior presence, the existence of additional criminal cases and the existence of previous psychiatric treatment history. There was a significant positive correlation between the age of first substance use and the age, the age of first cigarette use and the age of first alcohol use. Finally, when the groups with and without prison stories are compared in terms of self-harm behavior, a significant difference was found.

Conclusion: Reviewing the sociodemographic data of individuals with probation application will guide clinicians in defining the group in which more preventive measures will be taken for substance use.